Fixing Firmware File Systems

Here’s the scenario: you’ve downloaded the firmware for a device that you want to explore in more depth, and extracted out the updates.  You dig through them and see that they’re EXT4 systems, and say “jackpot!” while rubbing your hands together in glee.  “A quick mount and I can browse to my heart’s content” you say to yourself… and then you see “wrong fs type, bad option, bad superblock on {DEVICE}, missing codepage or helper program, or other error.”  Let’s get past that. 🙂

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RFID Fundamentals

I realized I didn’t have any good notes on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags/badges/etc, so I figured it was time to compile that and update it while I’m at it.  This post is just a quick run-down of the frequencies, types, and common cards/IDs.  If you don’t know what an RFID is, for the purposes of most pentesting it’s a security badge or a key fob, like you can see in the image at the top of this posting.

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Introduction to Hardware Protocols

As you begin diving into hardware hacking and reading printed circuit boards (PCB) you will likely come across several common protocols.  This article isn’t intended to be an exhaustive list of content, but rather a quick guide to identifying which protocols are commonly used, what they require, and what common tools will let you interface with them.  I’ll be covering the following protocols in this article:

  • RS-232
  • USB
  • I2C
  • SPI
  • JTAG
  • UART
  • USART

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